Many studies have now demonstrated that wireless, radiofrequency signals can damage cognitive abilities such as learning, memory, attention and reaction times.
We also know that Wi-Fi signals can alter brain activity and decrease a measure of attention in humans, http://wifiinschools.org.uk/resources/wifi+brain+July+2011.pdf. See Wi-Fi studies.
So why are pupils in schools made to use wireless devices in the classroom that emit signals which can damage learning and memory? Some schools make pupils use wireless computers/tablets/smartphones even when parents have asked that they don't. Learning tools should improve learning and outcomes for pupils, not inhibit cognitive abilities.
Studies have found that wireless signals can damage the blood-brain barrier, kill neurones and cells in the brain, alter brain development, change the electrical characteristics of neurones, damage DNA in the brain, change concentrations of neurotransmitters (signalling chemicals), as well as being associated with behavioural problems such as hyperactivity.
Wifiinschools.org.uk are calling on schools to use wired computers and to switch off Wi-Fi transmitters, to allow children to reach their full potential and to protect them from damage to their developing brains. Schools have a legal duty to protect children from harm to their health or development.
Cognitive inhibition in rats or mice by wireless signals (exposures at or below current guideline values) (20)
Shahin S. et al., 2015. 2.45GHz microwave radiation impairs learning and spatial memory via oxidative/nitrosative stress induced p53 dependent/independent hippocampal apoptosis: molecular basis and underlying mechanism. Toxicol Sci. [Epub ahead of print]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26396154.
Narayanan S.N. et al., 2015. Possible cause for altered spatial cognition of prepubescent rats exposed to chronic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Metab Brain Dis. 30(5): 1193-1206. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26033310. "Progressive learning abilities were found to be decreased in RF-EMR exposed rats." "RF-EMR exposed rats exhibited poor spatial memory retention when tested 48 h after the final trial." "RF-EMR exposure affected the viable cell count in dorsal hippocampal CA3 region." "Structural changes found in the hippocampus of RF-EMR exposed rats could be one of the possible reasons for altered cognition."
Deshmukh P.S. et al., 2015. Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation. Int J Toxicol. 34(3): 284-290. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25749756. "The results showed declined cognitive function, elevated HSP70 level, and DNA damage in the brain of microwave-exposed animals. The results indicated that, chronic low-intensity microwave exposure in the frequency range of 900 to 2450 MHz may cause hazardous effects on the brain."
Tang J. et al., 2015. Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats. Brain Res. 1601: 92-101. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598203. "28 days of EMF exposure induced cellular edema and neuronal cell organelle degeneration in the rat. In addition, damaged BBB permeability, which resulted in albumin and HO-1 extravasation were observed in the hippocampus and cortex." "Taken together, these results demonstrated that exposure to 900 MHz EMF radiation for 28 days can significantly impair spatial memory and damage BBB permeability in rat by activating the mkp-1/ERK pathway."
Zhang Y. et al., 2015. Effects of fetal microwave radiation exposure on offspeing behaviour in mice. J Radiat Res. 56(2): 261-268. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25359903. "we observed that male offspring demonstrated decreased learning and memory, while females were not affected in learning and memory, which suggested that microwaves had gender-dependent effects." Full paper.
Razavinasab M. et al., 2014. Matenal mobile phone exposure alters intrinsic electrophysical properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons in rat offspring. Toxicol Ind Health [Epub ahead of print]. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24604340. "Mobile phone exposure was mostly associated with a decrease in the number of action potentials fired in spontaneous activity and in response to current injection in both male and female groups. There was an increase in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in mobile phone rats compared with the control. The results of the passive avoidance and Morris water maze assessment of learning and memory performance showed that phone exposure significantly altered learning acquisition and memory retention in male and female rats compared with the control rats." "Our results suggest that exposure to mobile phones adversely affects the cognitive performance of both female and male offspring rats using behavioral and electrophysiological techniques."
Maaroufi K. et al., 2014. Spatial learning, monoamines and oxidative stress in rats exposed to 900 MHz electromagnetic field in combination with iron overload. Behav Brain Res. 258: 80-89 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24144546. "Rats exposed to EMF were impaired in the object exploration task but not in the navigation and working memory tasks. They also showed alterations of monoamine content in several brain areas but mainly in the hippocampus." "These results show that there is an impact of EMF on the brain and cognitive processes but this impact is revealed only in a task exploiting spontaneous exploratory activity."
Sharma A. et al., 2014. Spatial memory and learning performance and its relationship to protein synthesis of Swiss albino mice exposed to 10 GHz microwaves. Int J Radiat Biol. 90(1): 29-35. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23952535. "It can be concluded from the current study that exposure to microwave radiation caused decrements in the ability of mice to learn the special memory task, this may be due to simultaneous decrease in protein levels in the brain of mice."
Hao D. et al., 2013. Effects of long-term electromagnetic field exposure on spatial learning and memory in rats. Neurol Sci. 34(2):157-164. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22362331. "It can be seen that during the weeks 4-5 of the experiment, the average completion time and error rate of the exposure group were longer and larger than that of control group (p < 0.05). The hippocampal neurons showed irregular firing patterns and more spikes with shorter interspike interval during the whole experiment period."
Deshmukh P.S. et al., 2013. Effect of low level microwave radiation exposure on cognitive function and oxidative stress in rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 50(2): 114-119. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23720885. "Results showed significant impairment in cognitive function and increase in oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increase in levels of MDA (a marker of lipid peroxidation) and protein carbonyl (a marker of protein oxidation) and unaltered GSH content in blood."
Lu Y. et al., 2012. Glucose administration attenuates spatial memory deficits induced by chronic low-power-density microwave exposure. Physiol Behav. 106(5): 631-637. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22564535. "We exposed Wistar rats to 2.45 GHz pulsed MW irradiation at a power density of 1 mW/cm(2) for 3 h/day, for up to 30 days. MW exposure induced spatial learning and memory impairments in rats. Hippocampal glucose uptake was also reduced by MW exposure in the absence or presence of insulin."
Megha K. et al., 2012. Microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, cognitive impairment and inflammation in brain of Fischer rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 50(12): 889-896. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23986973. "Significant impairment in cognitive function and induction of oxidative stress in brain tissues of microwave exposed rats were observed in comparison with sham exposed groups. Further, significant increase in level of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-alpha) was also observed following microwave exposure. Results of the present study indicated that increased oxidative stress due to microwave exposure may contribute to cognitive impairment and inflammation in brain."
Hao D. et al., 2012. 916 MHz electromagnetic field exposure affects rat behavior and hippocampal neuronal discharge. Neural Regen Res. 7(19): 1488-1492. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25657684. "Error rates in the exposed rats were greater than the control rats at 6 weeks. Hippocampal neurons from the exposed rats showed irregular firing patterns during the experiment, and they exhibited decreased spiking activity 6-9 weeks compared with that after 2-5 weeks of exposure. These results indicate that 916 MHz electromagnetic fields influence learning and memory in rats during exposure". Full paper.
Li Y. et al., 2012. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on spatial memory and synapses in rat hippocampal CA1. Neural Regen Res. 7(16): 1248-1255. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25709623. "Compared with the sham-irradiated rats, the irradiated rats exhibited impaired performance. Morphological changes were investigated by examining synaptic ultrastructural changes in the hippocampus. Using the physical dissector technique, the number of pyramidal neurons, the synaptic profiles, and the length of postsynaptic densities in the CA1 region were quantified stereologically. The morphological changes included mitochondrial degenerations, fewer synapses, and shorter postsynaptic densities in the radiated rats. These findings indicate that mobile phone radiation can significantly impair spatial learning and reference memory and induce morphological changes in the hippocampal CA1 region." Full paper.
Chaturvedi C.M. et al., 2011. 2.45GHz (CW) microwave irradiation alters circadian organization, spatial memory, DNA structure in the brain cells and blood cell counts of male mice, Mus musculus. Prog Electromag Res B 29: 23-42. http://www.jpier.org/PIERB/pierb29/02.11011205.pdf (Full paper). "Microwave radiation caused an increase in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, a significant DNA strand break in brain cells and the loss of spatial memory in mice."
Narayanan S.N. et al., 2010. Effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiations (RF-EMR) on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in Wistar rats. Ups J Med Sci. 115(2): 91-96. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095879. "Mobile phone RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats." Full paper.
Fragopoulou A.F. et al., 2010. Whole body exposure with GSM 900MHz affects spatial memory in mice. Pathophysiology 17(3): 179-187. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19954937. "Statistical analysis revealed that during learning, exposed animals showed a deficit in transferring the acquired spatial information across training days (increased escape latency and distance swam, compared to the sham-exposed animals, on the first trial of training days 2-4). Moreover, during the memory probe-trial sham-exposed animals showed the expected preference for the target quadrant, while the exposed animals showed no preference, indicating that the exposed mice had deficits in consolidation and/or retrieval of the learned spatial information."
Narayanan S.N. et al., 2009. Spatial memory performance of Wistar rats exposed to mobile phone. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 64(3): 231-234. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19330250. "Mobile phone exposure affected the acquisition of learned responses in Wistar rats. This in turn points to the poor spatial navigation and the object place configurations of the phone-exposed animals." Full paper.
Nittby H. et al., 2008. Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 29(3): 219-232. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18044737. "In our study, GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02)." "Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure".
Li M. et al., 2008. Elevation of plasma corticosterone levels and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor translocation in rats: a potential mechanism for cognition impairment following low-power-density microwave exposure. J. Radiat Res. 49(2): 163-170. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18198477. "We exposed Wistar rats to a 2.45-GHz pulsed MW field at an average power density of 1 mW/cm(2) for 3 h daily, for up to 30 days. Our results show that MW-exposed rats had significant deficits in spatial learning and memory performance. MW exposure increased levels of plasma corticosterone, and consequently GC receptor (GR) nuclear translocation and apoptosis in the hippocampus. However, co-administration of the GR antagonist RU486 with MW exposure partially reversed the cognitive impairment and neuronal loss. These data indicate that GCs might contribute to the cognition deficit induced by chronic low-power-density MW exposure."