Papers finding adverse biological effects or damage to health from Wi-Fi signals, Wi-Fi-enabled devices or Wi-Fi frequencies (2.4 or 5 GHz).

Papers listed are those where exposures are below the current ICNIRP guideline values.  If the ICNIRP values were protective, we would not be seeing the damaging effects reported in the studies below.  Children are exposed to Wi-Fi/2.45GHz in schools every day, around the world.  Children are sitting with Wi-Fi-enabled tablet computers on their laps and up against their bodies for prolonged periods of time.  The studies below support the claim that schools giving children wireless devices to use, or exposing them to Wi-Fi signals, are failing to safeguard the health, development or wellbeing of the young people for whom they are responsible.  

Papers are in alphabetical order.  A file of some first pages, for printing, can be found here.

Wi-Fi/2.45GHz (61):

Akar A. et al., 2013. Effects of low level electromagnetic field exposure at 2.45 GHz on rat cornea. Int J Radiat Biol. 89(4): 243-249.

Akdag M.Z. et al 2016. Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats? J. Chem. Neuroanat. [Epub ahead of print].

Atasoy H.I. et al., 2013. Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices. Journal of Pediatric Urology 9(2): 223-229.

Avendaño C. et al., 2012. Use of laptop computers connected to internet through Wi-Fi decreases human sperm motility and increases sperm DNA fragmentation. Fertility and Sterility 97(1): 39-45.

Aynali G. et al., 2013. Modulation of wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative toxicity in laryngotracheal mucosa of rat by melatonin. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 270(5): 1695-1700.

Celik O. et al 2015. Oxidative stress of brain and liver is increased by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) exposure of rats during pregnancy and the development of newborns. J Chem Neuroanat. [Epub ahead of print].

Ceyhan A.M. 2012. Protective effects of β-glucan against oxidative injury induced by 2.45-GHz electromagnetic radiation in the skin tissue of rats.  Arch Dermatol Res 304(7): 521-527.

Chaturvedi C.M. et al., 2011. 2.45GHz (CW) microwave irradiation alters circadian organization, spatial memory, DNA structure in the brain cells and blood cell counts of male mice, Mus musculus. Prog Electromag Res B 29: 23-42. (Full paper).

Chou C.K. et al., 1992. Long-term, low-level microwave irradiation of rats. Bioelectromagnetics 13(6): 469–496.

Ciftci Z.Z. et al., 2015.Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure of Wi-Fi on development of teeth and changes in teeth element concentration in rats : Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) and teeth element concentrations. Biol Trace Elem Res. 163(1-2): 193-201.

Cig B. and Naziroglu M. 2015. Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Acta.1848(10 Pt B): 2756-2765.

Dasdag S. et al., 2015. Effect of long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on testes functions. Electromagn Biol Med.34(1): 37-42.

Dasdag S. et al 2015. Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue.  Int J Radiat Biol. 91(7): 555-561.

Desmunkh P.S. et al., 2013.  Detection of Low Level Microwave Radiation Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Vis-a-vis Genotoxicity in Brain of Fischer Rats. Toxicol Int. 20(1): 19-24.

Deshmukh P.S. et al., 2015.  Cognitive impairment and neurogenotoxic effects in rats exposed to low-intensity microwave radiation.  Int J. Toxicol. 34(3): 284-290.

Eser O., 2013. The effect of electromagnetic radiation on the rat brain: an experimental study. Turk Neurosurg. 23(6): 707-715.

Ghazizadeh V. and Naziroglu M. 2014. Electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) and epilepsy induce calcium entry and apoptosis through activation of TRPV1 channel in hippocampus and dorsal root ganglion of rats. Metab Brain Dis. 29(3): 787-799.

Grigoriev Y.G. et al., 2010. Confirmation studies of Soviet research on immunological effects of microwaves: Russian immunology results. Bioelectromagnetics 31(8):589-602.

Gumral N. et al., 2009. Effects of selenium and L-carnitine on oxidative stress in blood of rat induced by 2.45-GHz radiation from wireless devices. Biol Trace Elem Res. 132(1-3): 153-163.

Gürler H.S. et al, 2014. Increased DNA oxidation (8-OHdG) and protein oxidation (AOPP) by Low level electromagnetic field (2.45 GHz) in rat brain and protective effect of garlic. Int. J. Radiat. Biol.  90(10): 892-896.

Havas M. et al., 2010. Provocation study using heart rate variability shows microwave radiation from 2.4GHz cordless phone affects autonomic nervous system. European Journal of Oncology Library Vol. 5: 273-300.  part 2. 

Jorge-Mora T. et al., 2011. The effects of single and repeated exposure to 2.45 GHz radiofrequency fields on c-Fos protein expression in the paraventricular nucleus of rat hypothalamus. Neurochem Res. 36(12): 2322-2332.

Kesari K.K. et al., 2010. Mutagenic response of 2.45 GHz radiation exposure on rat brain.  Int J Radiat Biol. 86(4): 334-343.

Kesari K.K. and Behari J., 2010. Effects of microwave at 2.45 GHz radiations on reproductive system of male rats. Toxicol Environ Chem. 92(6): 1135-1147.

Kesari K.K. et al., 2012. Pathophysiology of microwave radiation: effect on rat brain.  Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 166(2): 379-388.

Kumar S. et al., 2011. The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field.  Clinics (Sao Paulo) 66(7): 1237-1245.

Kuybulu A.E. et al., 2016. Effects of long-term pre- and post-natal exposure to 2.45GHz wireless devices on developing male rat kidney. Ren Fail. [Epub ahead of print].

Maganioti A. E. et al., 2010. Wi-Fi electromagnetic fields exert gender related alterations on EEG. 6th International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic fields. Paper.

Margaritis L.H. et al., 2014. Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources. Electromagn Biol Med.  33(3): 165-189.

Meena R. et al., 2014. Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats.  Electromagn Biol Med. 33(2): 81-91.

Megha K. et al., 2015. Low intensity microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain. Neurotoxicology 51: 158-165.   

Misa-Augustiño M.J. et al., 2012. Electromagnetic fields at 2.45 GHz trigger changes in heat shock proteins 90 and 70 without altering apoptotic activity in rat thyroid gland. Biol Open 1(9): 831-839.

Misa-Agustiño M.J. et al., 2015. Exposure to non-ionizing radiation provokes changes in rat thyroid morphology and expression of HSP-90. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 240(9): 1123-1135.

Misa-Augustiño M.J. et al., 2015. EMF radiation at 2450 MHz triggers changes in the morphology and expression of heat shock proteins and glucocorticoid receptors in rat thymus. Life Sci. 127: 1-11.

Naziroğlu M. and Gumral N. 2009. Modulator effects of L-carnitine and selenium on wireless devices (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative stress and electroencephalography records in brain of rat. Int J Radiat Biol. 85(8): 680-689.

Nazıroğlu M. et al., 2012. 2.45-Gz wireless devices induce oxidative stress and proliferation through cytosolic Ca2+ influx in human leukemia cancer cells. International Journal of Radiation Biology 88(6): 449–456.

Nazıroğlu M. et al., 2012b. Melatonin modulates wireless (2.45 GHz)-induced oxidative injury through TRPM2 and voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in brain and dorsal root ganglion in rat. Physiol Behav. 105(3): 683-692.

Oni M.O., Amuda D.B. and Gilbert C.E. 2011. Effects of radiofrequency radiation from WiFi devices on human ejaculated semen. International Journal of Recent Research and Applied Studies 9(2): 292-294.

Ozorak A. et al., 2013. Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- induced risks on oxidative stress and elements in kidney and testis of rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring.  Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 156(103): 221-229.

Oksay T. et al., 2014. Protective effects of melatonin against oxidative injury in rat testis induced by wireless (2.45 GHz) devices. Andrologia  46(1): 65-72.

Papageorgiou C. C. et al., 2011. Effects of Wi-Fi signals on the p300 component of event-related potentials during an auditory hayling task. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience 10(2): 189-202.

Paulraj R. and Behari J. 2006. Single strand DNA breaks in rat brain cells exposed to microwave radiation. Mutat Res. 596(1-2): 76-80.

Paulraj R. and Behari J. 2006b. Protein kinase C activity in developing rat brain cells exposed to 2.45 GHz radiation. Electromagn Biol Med. 25(1): 61-70.

Saili L. et al 2015. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 40(2): 600-605.

Salah M.B. et al., 2013. Effects of olive leave extract on metabolic disorders and oxidative stress induced by 2.45 GHz WIFI signals. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 36(3): 826-834.

Sangun O. et al., 2015. The effects of long-term exposure to a 2450 MHz electromagnetic field on growth and pubertal development in female Wistar rats.  Electromagn. Biol. Med. 34(1): 63-67.

Saygin M. et al., 2015. Inpact of L-carnitine and selenium treatment on testicular apoptosis in rats exposed to 2.45gHz microwave energy. West Indian Med J. 64(2): 55-61. 

Saygin M. et al., 2015. Impact of 2.45GHz microwave radiation on the testicular inflammatory pathway biomarkers in young rats: The role of gallic acid. Environ Toxicol. [Epub ahead of print].

Senavirathna M.D., et al., 2014.  Nanometer-scale elongation rate fluctuations in the Myriophyllum aquaticum (Parrot feather) stem were altered by radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation. Plant Signal Behav. 9(4): e28590.

Shahin S. et al., 2013. 2.45 GHz Microwave Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress Affects Implantation or Pregnancy in Mice, Mus musculus. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 169: 1727–1751.

Shahin S. et al., 2014. Microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus, by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress. Free Radic Res. 48(5): 511- 525.

Shahin S. et al., 2015. 2.45GHz microwave radiation impairs learning and spatial memory via oxidative/nitrosative stress induced p53 dependent/independent hippocampal apoptosis: molecular basis and underlying mechanism. Toxicol Sci. 148(2): 380-399. 

Shokri S. et al., 2015. Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposure on apoptosis, sperm parameters and testicular histomorphometry in rats: a time course study. Cell J. 17(2): 322-331.

Sinha R.K. 2008. Chronic non-thermal exposure of modulated 2450 MHz microwave radiation alters thyroid hormones and behavior of male rats. Int J Radiat Biol. 84(6): 505-513.

Somosy Z. et al., 1991. Effects of modulated and continuous microwave irradiation on the morphology and cell surface negative charge of 3T3 fibroblasts. Scanning Microsc. 5(4): 1145-1155.

Soran M.-L. et al., 2014.  Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.  J Plant Physiol. 171(15): 1436-1443.

Taheri M. et al., 2015. Klebsiella pneumonia, a Microorganism that Approves the Non-linear Responses to Antibiotics and Window Theory after Exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation.J Biomed Phys Eng. 5(3): 115–120.

Tök L. et al., 2014. Effects of melatonin on Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in lens of rats. Indian Journal of Opthalmology 62(1): 12-15.

Türker Y. et al., 2011. Selenium and L-carnitine reduce oxidative stress in the heart of rat induced by 2.45-GHz radiation from wireless devices. Biol Trace Elem Res. 143(3): 1640-1650.

Yildirim M.E. et al., 2015. What is harmful for male fertility: Cell phone or the wireless internet? Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 31(9): 480-484.

Yüksel M. et al 2015. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring. Endocrine [Epub ahead of print].

A few more studies of similar microwave frequencies at low exposures (6V/m or below):

(Not comprehensive)

Balmori A. 2010. Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: the city turned into a laboratory. Electromagn. Biol. Med. 29(1-2):31-35.

Erdinc O. O. et al., 2003. Electromagnetic waves of 900MHz in acute pentylenetetrazole model in ontogenesis in mice. Neurol. Sci. 24:111-116.

Fesenko E. E. et al., 1999. Stimulation of murine natural killer cells by weak electromagnetic waves in the centimeter range. Biofizika 44:737–741.

Fesenko E. E. et al., 1999. Microwaves and cellular immunity. I. Effect of whole body microwave irradiation on tumor necrosis factor production in mouse cells, Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 49:29–35.  

Kesari K. K. and Behari J., 2009. Microwave exposure affecting reproductive system in male rats. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 162(2):416-428.

Kesari K. K. and Behari J., 2009. Fifty-gigahertz microwave exposure effect of radiations on rat brain. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 158:126-139.

Khurana V. G. et al., 2010. Epidemiological Evidence for a Health Risk from Mobile Phone Base Stations. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Health 16:263–267.

Maier R. et al., 2004. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on cognitive processes – a pilot study on pulsed field interference with cognitive regeneration. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 110: 46-52.

Nittby H. et al., 2008. Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 29: 219-232.

Novoselova E. G. et al., 1998. Stimulation of production of tumor necrosis factor by murine macrophages when exposed in vivo and in vitro to weak electromagnetic waves in the centimeter range Bofizika 43:1132–1333.

Novoselova E. G. et al., 1999. Microwaves and cellular immunity. II. Immunostimulating effects of microwaves and naturally occurring antioxidant nutrients. Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 49:37–41.

Otitoloju A. A. et al., 2010. Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from Global System for Mobile Communication Base Stations. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 84(1):51-4.

Panagopoulos D. al., 2010. Bioeffects of mobile telephony radiation in relation to its intensity or distance from the antenna. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Vol 86(5):345-357.

Persson B. R. R. et al., 1997. Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication. Wireless Networks 3: 455-461.

Pyrpasopoulou A. et al., 2004. Bone morphogenic protein expression in newborn kidneys after prenatal exposure to radiofrequency radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 25:216-27.

Salford L. G. et al., 2010. Effects of microwave radiation upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier. European Journal of Oncology Library Vol. 5:333-355. part 2.

Salford L. G., et al., 2003. Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environ. Health Perspect. 111:881-883.